I was born in Baku (Azerbaijan) in February 20, 1944. In 1967 I have graduated
the physical department of Azerbaijan State University and within 23 years
have worked in the laboratory of stellar atmospheres (at beginning in Shemakha
astrophysical observatory, then in Physical institute in Baku). My thesis
was defenced in 1972 in Erevan. Theme of the work was "The astrophysical
peculiarities of observations of neutron stars". One of the methods of
neutron star discovery (observation of periodical X-ray radiation) was
predicted in our (in collaboration with O.H.Guseinov) letter in 1968. Note
that X-ray pulsars were discovered four years later by UHURU satellite.
In 1970-80 I investigated theoretical problems connecting with process
of accretion of interstellar gas by relativistiic stars (single and members
of binary systems), evolution of planetary nebulae, etc. In 1974 we published
a letter (in collaboration with O.H.Guseinov) suggested that galactic X-ray
background was created by radiation of several thousands of weak sources
(4-5 orders weaker than Sco X-1 or Cyg X-1). We obtained that low sensitivity
of the X-ray detectors did not allow to separate the X-ray background to
discrete objects. Our hypothesis was criticized by practically all astrophysicists
because idea of hot gas radiation contribution in the X-ray background
was popular in that time. In January, 2000, the problem was decised by
satellite X-ray telescopes. Weak X-ray sources were discovered and
their contribution in X-ray background was proved.
In 1978 we (in collaboration with O.H.Guseinov and S.Yu.Rakhamimov) have
Catalogue of X-ray sources' (The Astrophysical Journal, Supplement
Series, vol. 41), where complete data on 625 X-ray sources were compilated.
This Catalogue was used by soviet and american scientists in preparation
of the X-ray space observations (particularly, in spacecrafts "Prognoz"
and "Mir"). In the beginning of 1980 we have published several papers on
binary system evolution. In collaboration with O.H.Guseinov and Yu.S.Rustamov
we elaborated new distance scale for galactic and extragalactic planetary
nebulae based on their emission in radio range. After my repatriation to
Israel (1990) I continued these investigations in Tel-Aviv University.
I worked in Tel-Aviv University within three years and have published 8
scientific papers in "Montly notices of the Royal Astrophysical Society",
"Astrophysics and Space science", etc.
Before repatriation I have published approximately 70 scientific letters
and 4 science popular books: "Relativistic astrophysics today and tomorrow"
(1979), "Supernovae" (1981), "Puzzles for experts" (1984), "Sky in X-rays"
(1984). The book "Relativistic astrophysics today and tomorrow" was
rewarded in 1979 as the best among all books published by "Znanie" Publishing
After my grant in Tel-Aviv university was finished (1995) I worked as editor
in "Peak hour" and "Black mask" magazines. Ater June, 1997, I work as an
editor-in-chief in "Alef" magazine, which is published in Israel and circulates
in 47 countries. "Alef" publishes information on jewish life in Israel
and diaspora as political commentary, interviews, jewish history essays,
crime and science fiction stories, etc.
My first science fiction short story "Ikaria alpha" was published in 1959
in soviet magazine "Technics for youth". Then my SF short stories and novells
were published in "Technics for youth", "Ural pathfinder", "Science and
religion", "The knowledge is force" magazines and more than 20 SF antologies.
After repatriation I wrote more than at all the preceding years. In Israel
I have published two books: story "First
day - last day" (1993) and novel "Men
of the Code" (1997). I published also approximately 200 short stories
and most of them were later united in several cycles. Mainly, it is prognostyc
science fiction about Israel of XXI century - "real" and alternative. Short
stories about Iona Sheket's adventures (jewish analogue of Jon Tichy by
Stanislaw Lem) are united in six cycles: "Memuars
of Iona Sheket", "Iona Sheket in the Time patrol",
adventures of Iona Sheket", "Iona Sheket in
World of Spirits", "Institute of mad inventions"
and "Iona Sheket as stellar spy".
day - last day" story you can read about advent of Messiah after which
the Creator turns time back towards to beginning of the Creation. Then
God begins to create our Universe at the second time. "Men
of the Code" novel also tells about Messiah's advent and Escape of
the humanity from Earth. Famous SF writer Boris Strugatsky said about this
novel: "It is the unusual, strange, wild novel. I read it with great pleasure
and recommend to all who do not read".
In 1982 I have received the Diploma "The Great Circle" of SF amauter club
assotiation for the most popularity among SF readers. Short story "Bow-shooting"
was laureate of the "Technics for youth" magazine International competition
(1981). At that year my short story "I am not guilty" was recognized as
best SF short story published in "Technics and Science" magazine. Short
story "Twenty billion years after end of the World" was included in SF
antology "Science fiction of XX century" (1995). Novel "Men of the Code"
was recognized in Fancon-97 as the best Russian language novel published
in 1997 out of Russia.
In 1994 Club of SF amauters began work in Jerusalem. Each month fans of
SF discuss on new novels and events, future and phylosofy. Information
on this Club you can find in our
During many years I investigated the methods of SF ideas creation. At my
opinion, SF work loses most of their significance if it does not include
original SF idea (or topic). The Method of Creative Fantasy Development
(MCFD) was elaborated by me in 1970-1980. In this work Roman Leonidov participated
and I wrote with him also historical novel "The
Trial". We could not create this method without discussions with Genrich
Altshuller (Al'tov) and their helpful advices. In 1974 I wrote book "Magic
crystal of fantasy". It was the educational supplay on MCFD for engineers
and inventors. In 1999 I have remaked two chapters of this book: "Algorithm
of new ideas" and "Patent foundation of Science
Fiction". In 1986 Genrich Altchuller and me have created the Scale
for SF idea estimation "Fantasy-2". In 1998 I have received the Diploma
"Master of TRIZ", number 1 (see page TRIZ).
After 1995 I began to write crime stories and published several novels
and more than 100 crime short stories united in the cycle "Adventures of
(The letter by Vladimir Borisov in "Enclopedia of SF", 1996)
AMNUEL Pavel (afer emigration - Pesakh) Rafaelovich (born 1944)*. Russian
soviet writer and astrophysicist. He was born in Baku (now - Azerbaijan),
have graduated the physical department of Azerbaijan State University,
worked in Shemakha astrophysical observatoty, where he investigated the
problems of theoretical astrophysics. Then he worked in the Physical institute
(Baku). He had third degree in astrophysics and have published more than
60 scientific letters and 5 books in his speciality. His first SF publication
"Icaria alpha" was in "Technics for youths" (1959). A. emigrated to Israel
in 1990. He lives in Jerusalem.
In spite of A. first SF book "Today, tomorrow and allways" was published
only in 1984, the author was in that time within quarter of century one
of liders of hard science fiction, follower and companion of Genrich Al'tov.
As a rule, the heroes of A. novels are creative men, which courageously
storm insoluble scientific problems. One of them is Noel Belcher from novel
"Third side of medal" (1968, in collaboration with Roman Leonidov), the
artist finding at Mars the messages from extraterrestrial civilizations.
Also it is Igor Astahov, the hero of "Wanderer" short story (1975) and
"Steepness" novel (1975), scientist and teacher, which creates erratology
- science on mistakes. Astahov becomes all-powerfull and goes to stars
by steps. Also they are "variators" from "Go on route" short story (1973)
- men with variated genetical mechanism, which can live at extraterrestrial
conditions, - and their creators. The topic of "Getting over" short story
(1981) is contact with far neutron star civilization. This topic links
with reasonings on genius, ecology of space, solving of scientifiic problems
with methods of development of fantasy. In "Link in the chain" short story
(1982) very different essences find each other: extragalactic gaseous cloud,
thinking gravitational field and the man from Earth. In this link of civilizations
one chain is absent: forth civilization destroyes itself. The problem of
responsibility each man for others is most brightnessly elucidated in one
of the best A. short stories (one of the best short stories of eighties)
billion years after end of the World" (1984) where direct conformity
between life at Earth and in the Universe is obtained. In this short story
author organically joins two topic plans: political resistance of Superstates
in the present time with the nuclear war threat, and reminiscences of the
human Universe destroyed by their civilizations. This action have created
the Big Bang 20 billion years in the past. The novel "Today,
tomorrow and always" (1984) relates to theme of contact of civilization
and necessity of sacrifices for the understanding achievement.
Later novel and short stories by A. were included in the "Highest
measure" (1990) book. One of latest important works of the writer is
the novel "The Explosion" (1986). Hero of the novel,
brilliant american scientist discovers the medicine against cancer and
simultaneously acquires all the qualities of Superman. Topic of the novel
consists in conflict of the hero (which is the Messiah carrying new ideas
to humanity) with american politics and army.
A. is an author of several works on the history of SF. In collaboration
with G.Altov he elaborated the scale "Fantasy-2"
for estimation of novelty, convincinity, human and artistic qualities of
* More accurate definition: I had the name Pesakh before repatriation.
I was Pesakh all time, this name was in all my documents. But it was simpler
in USSR to be as Pavel...
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